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Teatro_Colón,_Buenos_AiresThe Teatro Colón (Columbus Theatre) is the main opera house in Buenos Aires, Argentina, acoustically considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world.

The present Colón replaced an original theatre which opened in 1857. Towards the end of the century it became clear that a new theatre was needed and, after a 20-year process, the present theatre opened on May 25, 1908, with Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda.

The Teatro Colón was visited by the foremost singers and opera companies of the time, who would sometimes go on to other cities including Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

After this period of huge international success, the theatre's decline became clear and plans were made for massive renovations. After an initial start of works to restore the landmark in 2005, the theatre was closed for refurbishment from October 2006 to May 2010. It re-opened on May 24, 2010, with a program for the 2010 season.

ColónBy the mid-1850s, with the flourishing of opera performed by touring companies, the need for a new theatre became obvious.
In 1854 alone, 53 different operas were performed in the city. The first Teatro Colón building, overlooking Plaza de Mayo, was started in 1856 and opened on April 27, 1857, with Verdi's La traviata, just four years after its Italian premiere.

The production starred Sofia Vera Lorini as Violetta and Enrico Tamberlik as Alfredo. The theatre was designed by Charles Pellegrini, and proved to be a successful venue for over 30 years, with 2,500 seats and the inclusion of a separate gallery reserved only for women.
Before the construction of the current Teatro Colón, opera performances were given in several theatres, of which the first Teatro Colón and the Teatro Opera were the most important. The principal company that performed at the Teatro Opera moved to the Teatro Colón in 1908. However, important companies also performed at the Teatro Politeama and the Teatro Coliseo which opened in 1907.

Teatro Colón: the great Argentine Coliseum.























 
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This indigenous group inhabiting the region known as the Puna and its area of influence extended from the northwestern province of Jujuy to northwest Catamarca , comprising the province of Salta.

The cochinoa Casabindo and also of the Puna, were related to apatamas, like the atacamas the other side of the Cordillera, with whom they shared a common language, the Cunza.
The apatamas received cultural influences from its neighbors Diaguitas calchaquíes, omaguacas and Altiplano, were excellent farmers who harvested corn, potatoes and quinoa. These foods were stored in the rock walls of the mountains, in which they made holes where deposited.

Worked stone and wood, making shovels, hoes and knives. They domesticated the llama, which they used as a beast of burden and also got meat, milk, hides and wool. Another activity was the exploitation of the salt, from which extracted salt bricks then carried on the backs of flame to the various villages, where traded for various products, especially corn.
Like other towns in the region, which took apatamas offered their environment and so built their rectangular houses with stones and mud (cairns) and thatch, with an opening at the top as input, which was accessible through wooden ladders. It is noteworthy that the apatamas not own fortifications (pucarás) as omaguacas.

Wore a long tunic to the knees, which the Spanish called "T", of red or brown for warmth were covered with a woolen circle with an opening in the center for the head, called "poncho"; around his waist with a sash wore wool and leather sandals called "husutas" (sandals). They covered his head with a cap that covered the ears and also the neck and adorned with necklaces, pins, headbands, bracelets and pectorals made of bone, feathers, wood and metal.

Poor in the production of ceramics, apatamas craft developed great skill in woodworking and pumpkin.

The Omaguacas.
The omaguacas gave their name to the region known as Quebrada de Humahuaca in Jujuy Province. His name, according to Spanish sources, meaning "treasure heads" and included a large number of tribes which included the purmamarca, the tilcara, the tumbaya, the Maimará, what s Jujuy, the puquile, the Ocloya and others.

Place of passage between the Altiplano and the valleys of northwestern Argentina, crossed by the Rio Grande, this region was an area of ​​ongoing conflict, before and after the arrival of the Spanish.
While northern climate is dry and Puno, south has a subtropical environment with abundant vegetation and regular rainfall. The Rio Grande, in its 170 km route gives rise to the so-called narrow, exploited since time immemorial by indigenous peoples given their fertility.

The omaguacas were mainly farmers of maize and to a lesser extent potatoes and quinoa. They practiced hunting guanaco and rhea, The Taming of the calls that took advantage of its many products-and collecting carob.
Its production potter (fair quality) had the characteristic red background with decorations in black. Elaborated large round jugs and so-called "glasses-drums" of notorious Central Highlands influence.
Its activities included the manufacture of weapons such as bows, arrows, bolas and slings; worked with copper, gold, silver and tin. They wore blankets and long shirts uncu calls; were covered with ponchos, wore sandals, headbands, bracelets, rings, pectorals, etc..

Their houses were rectangular, stone, thatched inclined, no windows and a single opening.
The strategic nature of the Quebrada de Humahuaca made omaguacas a people prepared militarily. To defend against invasions fortified enclosures designed stone, which called pucarás and since they fought using bows and arrows, stone maces and bolas. Both Spanish Incas as experienced at the time Omaguaca resistance.

The diaguitas or calchaquíes.
Diaguitas biases that populated northwestern Argentina were constituted by the North calchaquíes, the cacanes in the center and southern capayanes, groups that had, among their common characteristics, the use of language or diaguita cacán. They were the most advanced between groups that populated the Argentine territory and this was due mainly to the powerful Inca influence.

According to sources Hispanic, diaguitas were "tall and strong"; wearing typical woven wool shirt adorned with colorful geometric patterns. They wore sandals and adorned with headbands, rings, pins, etc.. made in metals like gold, copper (which joined with tin for bronze), stone, wood, etc..
Of the Incas, the diaguitas learned to cultivate in terraces, thereby taking advantage of the hillsides to produce corn, potato, pumpkin, quinoa, beans, etc.. The aridity of the land was counteracted by artificial irrigation, building for this great canals and ditches, a technique also taken from Inca.
They practiced collecting carob-fruit of the carob-, that served food and the elaborated which alcoholic beverages such as chicha and the hosts. Achieved the domestication of the llama, made the most of it produced by this animal, which constituted an important part of the economy diaguita.
Spanish sources mention the bellicosity of the diaguitas, grouped into tribes whose names have survived in local place names: pulares, tolombones, Cahis, chicoanos, aimachas, Quilmes, hualfines, luracatos, etc.. who opposed a stubborn resistance to Spanish domination, turning into legend as names Viltipoco leaders, Juan Calchaquí Colca Pedro, Pedro Chumay, Pate, Ultimpa, Chalemín, Luis Enriquez and Martin Iquín latter, curaca (head) of the Quilmes, who paid dearly for his defeat to be deported en masse to what is now the province of Buenos Aires, giving rise to the current sad town that bears his name.

The capayanes.
Brothers of the calchaquíes language, the capayanes inhabited the provinces of La Rioja and San Juan, in a region between those, huarpes north and to the south, between the valleys of Famatina, Yacampis Sanagasta and crossed by the Colorado and Jáchal.

Village farmers, consuming Capayán corn, squash and quinoa that artificially cultivated in irrigated fields through canals and ditches. This technology demonstrates the Inca influence, as well as their clothing, fabric production and guanaco llama wool, copper metallurgy and gold. At capayanes attributed Sanagasta ceramic style or Angualasto characterized by geometric decorations in black on red background.

Lules and Vilelas.
Although the study of indigenous groups in Argentina requires us to contextualize within a defined geographical area, it can lead to the false belief that we are dealing with cultures fixed in time and space. Nothing is further from the truth, it must be recognized that in ancient times the great mobility of people was evident. Examples of this were the lules, hunter-gatherer group arrived in ancient times from the Brazilian Amazon to the western Chaco forest. From there, these warlike nomads made contact with sedentary peoples of Andean culture in the area of ​​Santiago del Estero and Tucuman, as tonocotés, who frequently harassed and looted. According to Spanish sources, the lules practiced cannibalism and not for the Spanish conquest "... tonocotés had finished with ..." said Father Barzana.

Of great size and slender, the lules preferably fed the products of hunting and fishing, complementing this activity with collecting carob and wild honey. They used bow and arrows, clubs and throwing darts. Usually naked, covered with feathers used rheas, so that the Spanish called "Juries" these Indians in the early sixteenth century chronicles, as this would come from the Quechua word XURI, name that designated Andean villages these birds runners.

For their part, Vilela, neighbors of lules and culturally related, differed from those in sedentary habits they had acquired, with an incipient agriculture and animal husbandry. In more peaceful habits, fond of music and dance.

Tonocotés.
Inhabitants of the south-central province of Santiago del Estero, these Indians had-like lules and vilelas - an ancient Amazonian origin, but were heavily influenced by the cultures of western Andean origin. Sedentary farmers, mainly concentrated tonocotés between Dulce and Salado rivers, limiting the sanavirones south, west to the calchaquíes and north and east by the warlike domains lules.

They grew corn, squash and beans in waterlogged soils near the rivers, which, after the flood, there deposited a layer of fertile silt.

Their dwellings circular branches and mud had the characteristic of being built on artificial hills or mounds known as barrows, grouped in villages surrounded with fences, to protect themselves from attack by lules and other tribes of the Chaco forest.
Evidence of his distant Amazonian origin is given by certain hunting practices, such as using poisoned darts and custom to ensure their dead and keep your bones in clay pots.


 
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Born over a hundred years ago in Buenos Aires by the creative effort of Italian immigrants, the steak is one of the few indigenous art forms. Become a symbol of an era in which he won fame with popular sayings texts now demand and interest in this art travels the world.

He was a stubborn Italian and as such refused to continue painting the cars municipal gray tones such as oppressed him. Vincent Brunetti is that he liked the colors. One day he came to the shop and painted a car with intense hues on both sides stamped him a line and so left the first record of what would be the thread. It was in the late nineteenth century.

la-bocaWhile filleting newly acquired art features in the early '70s, its glory stood in the middle of the last century were initially horse-drawn carts, then came the collective to invade the urban landscape and with them the traits acquired massive thread. It was common then to see the mirrors of the bars, billboards announcing tango shows, trucks, private cars and even stamps, many of them neatly ornamented with fillets of different reasons.

The classic work of steak, with time you were adding texts of popular sayings. And it was the writer Jorge Luis Borges who, with his acid style, defined the steak and sayings as a "judgmental side."

Over the decades was little record that this art was popular, perhaps because it was always underrated, characterized as a minor art because of its origins. The thread had seen the light in the shadow of the body workshops Paseo Colon immigrant workers hand and soon it was associated with the tango, dance born to the same period in the suburbs and considered, initially, as unseemly because of its origin and riverside port.
Three Italian immigrants.
There are no precise dates or a specific time that marks the birth of the thread, only states that it develops in the hands of three Italian immigrants in the late 1800s, who will transgress traditional forms change and dark colors that characterized decorated ornaments and public of an era. Vincent Brunetti, Cecilio Salvatore Pascarella and Venturo, will give way to the intense colors, starting a cultural form that will demonstrate a way of life.

The steak not only has an aesthetic but also is used as an expression of man's cultural values ​​of Buenos Aires, one of the few indigenous art forms since colonization. Its etymology comes from the Latin word filum (thread) which means fine line that serves as adornment.

Since the thread is venerate the saints, the artists will honor the people, expressing an appointment with love, luck or omens will be revealed political preference. The thread becomes a channel of expression for those who have no voice. Enunciates pain, happiness, love what you love, veneration, in short, a range of feelings that are suitable marquee to say. Painted with synthetic enamel whose components stand the test of time, their designs carry the widest range of shapes and hues: flowers, ribbons with the mother country, acanthus leaves, scrolls, circles, straight lines and curves that give life to landscapes jackets scenes or portraits of characters such as Carlos Gardel, Eva Perón or the Virgin Mary. Generational continuity in this type of art they gave the children of those pioneers. It was precisely Miguel Venturo, son of Don Salvatore, who continued and in turn introduced substantial changes into ornaments, giving the thread a more modern and casual.

In art galleries.
One of the first exhibitions of fileteadores was conducted in 1970 by two compilers tenacious, Nicolas Rubio and Esther Barugel. It is only at that time when criticism and art circuit addresses the issue. However, in 1968 there was an appreciation by organizing exhibitions in the most celebrated galleries.
The coup de grace comes in 1975, when a regulation prohibiting the use of the thread in public passenger transport. They will then be filleters teachers who will sustain his art, that they perish like so many others. Thus, the name Alexander Mentaberri, Pedro Unamuno, Andrew Vogliotti, is in addition, inter alia, the brothers Arce, Luis Zorz, and Jorge Leon Untroib Muscia. The thread and not just sold as folkloric element craft fairs or antique houses. Now the demand and interest travel the world.
On the streets.

Although many times the thread has gone unnoticed, has continued to be present in everyday life: in the old mateos of where young lovers stroll through the city under the starry night vowing eternal love attached to doors or inside taxis tirelessly trajinan the streets of Buenos Aires, in the neighborhood carousels that spin endlessly under the envelope and shameless laughter of children; ornamenting bars and private houses on the dance floor, where the bodies are joined in a dance to the influence sultry tango, whose music and lyrics were marginalized as the steak itself, with some disdain, by the social prejudices of a time.

More than a hundred years after his birth, the thread continues in the hands of teachers who exercise from the office towards the artistic, or giving talks, offering courses or by sampling an expression born in the margins, that empire its beauty is not worth disappear.


 
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laguna-brava map It is a unique place for its rugged beauty and landscape framework offered by the Andes.

The most impressive mountains in the vicinity of the lagoon are the Veladero and hills and Bonnet Large Cap C hico.

It is 4200 meters and vicuña reserve (can be seen in many a few meters from the road) and has recently been named a Ramsar site.

It is a very important wetland for its seasonal population of flamingos pink and high salt background gives it its characteristic white color. It is a high Andean volcanic lagoon of 17 km. long and 4 km. wide, muddy and shallow contour with associated wetlands and meadows and rivers fed by snowmelt and rainfall. 405,000 hectares are protected.

The most characteristic feature is the body of water that gives the name to the Park, nestled between conical hills, gentle slopes and steep walls fences.

The lagoon , 1,700 hectares, is fed by two streams temporary scarce caudal del Llano Blanco and Pichi-Ñireco. The aquatic birds, spectacular for its variety and quantity, forms the primary attraction of the park is the swan neck and black as the main protagonist.

laguna_blanca_3 The multitude of birds that frequent the Laguna Brava also includes flamingos that nest in it, ducks, plovers, sandpipers and grebes silver.
The trip to Laguna Brava begins in the village of Vinchina 330 km from the capital of La Rioja. The only street that has the people leads to a bridge over the river Bermejo. From there, a dirt road that you can travel with common car ascends the Quebrada de La Troy.

The tour continues to Alto Jague, last town you pass through before entering the vastness of the mountains. From Jague the road continues along the Quebrada Santo Domingo, through gentle hills that seem covered with a velvet blue, green, purple, brown and orange, because soil minerals. Every so often, on the slopes desert, you can see the race graceful guanaco and vicuna of stillness stone interrupts on high.

The following costs is the "Quebrada del Rock". At the edge of the path are curious circular huts with walls of stone and mortar (mixture of lime and earth). Constructs measured five meters in diameter for three and a half high, and its architecture is similar to that of an igloo, terminating in a dome. These are the thirteen shelters set up in the area between 1864 and 1873 to house the cattle drovers leading Chile.
The ascent continues until four thousand feet. Finally we leave the main road to go through a dirt track on the downs. As you approach the center of the valley is the image of a lagoon with majestic peaks oval around it (the Veladero, the Bonnet Chico and Pissis - the second highest in America, with 6,882 meters above sea level).

In the distance you get to see the remains of an abandoned plane made an emergency landing in the fifties.

The serenity of the environment still breaks when a hundred pink flamingos spreads its wings and takes flight in unison.

Given this picture, the feeling is to be here to stop the kingdom absolute calm of solitude, this enormous valley where the mountains acquire multicolor dyes strange blue, orange, green, purple and brown.












 
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