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In Argentina it is called province to the states that make up the nation, according to the principles of federalism established in the Constitution. Legally Argentina is a federation of provinces and maintained by constitutional mandate the historical names of United River Plate and Argentina Confederation Provinces, in addition to the more usual Argentina.
 
Argentine provinces govern themselves, they write their own constitutions and have executive, legislative and judicial powers themselves, including their own provincial police. Fourteen of them are historically and legally existed prior to the current national organization, and with nine subsequently created exclusively retain all powers not expressly delegated to the Nation in the Constitution.
Official name:
Argentinian republic
Total area:
3,761,274 km2
Sup. Americas
2,791,810 km2
Sup. Antarctic Continent
969,464 km2
Capital:
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Political division:
1 autonomous city and 23 provinces
Government:
Republican Representative and Federal
Population:
40,117,096 inhabitants. 2010 Census.
Language:
Spanish
Monetary unit:
Weight
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.
Capital
Capital City of Argentina
Surface:
200 km2
Population:
2890151 hab.
Argentine provinces.
BUENOS AIRES.
Capital city
La Plata
Surface:
307,571 km2
Population:
15625084 hab.
CATAMARCA.
Capital city
San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca
Surface:
102,602 km2
Population:
367,828 hab.
CHACO.
Capital city
Resistance
Surface:
99,633 km2
Population:
1055259 hab.
CHUBUT.
Capital city
Rawson
Surface:
224,686 km2
Population:
509,108 hab.
Read also: Argentina is composed of nine geographical regions.
CORDOVA
Capital city
Cordova
Surface:
165,321 km2
Population:
3308876 hab.
CURRENTS.
Capital city
currents
Surface:
88,199 km2
Population:
992,595 hab.
BETWEEN RIVERS.
Capital city
Paraná
Surface:
78,781 km2
Population:
1235994 hab.
FORMOSA.
Capital city
Formosa
Surface:
72,066 km2
Population:
530,162 hab.
JUJUY.
Capital city
San Salvador de Jujuy
Surface:
53,219 km2
Population:
673,307 hab.
THE PAMPA.
Capital city
Saint Rose
Surface:
143.440 km2
Population:
318,951 hab.
THE RIOJA.
Capital city
The Rioja
Surface:
89,680 km2
Population:
333,642 hab.
MENDOZA.
Capital city
Mendoza
Surface:
148,827 km2
Population:
1738929 hab.
MISSIONS.
Capital city
posadas
Surface:
29,801 km2
Population:
788,915 hab.
NEUQUÉN.
Capital city
Neuquén
Surface:
94,078 km2
Population:
388,833 hab.
BLACK RIVER.
Capital city
Viedma
Surface:
203,013 km2
Population:
638,645 hab.
SALTA.
Capital city
Salta
Surface:
155,488 km2
Population:
1214441 hab.
SAN JUAN.
Capital city
San Juan
Surface:
89.651 km2
Population:
681,055 hab.
SAINT LOUIS.
Capital city
saint Louis
Surface:
76,748 km2
Population:
432,310 hab.
SANTA CRUZ.
Capital city
Rio Gallegos
Surface:
243,943 km2
Population:
273,964 hab.
SANTA FE.
Capital city
Santa Fe
Surface:
133,007 km2
Population:
3194537 hab.
SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO.
Capital city
Santiago del Estero
Surface:
136,351 km2
Population:
874,006 hab.
TUCUMÁN.
Capital city
San Miguel de Tucuman
Surface:
22,524 km2
Population:
1448200 hab.
TIERRA DEL FUEGO, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands
Capital city
Ushuaia
Total area:
1,002,445 km2
Sup. Antartida
965,597 km2
Sup. Austral Islands
3867 km2
Population:
127,205 hab.
Bibliography:
  • IGN: Values ​​calculated on surface mapping at 1: 500,000
  • INDEC: Facts Conclusive population Census Population and Housing 2010.
  • Immagini: Wikipedia
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Argentina is composed of nine geographic regions: the Pampa, the Precordillera, Cuyo, Northwest Argentina (NOA), Chaco, Mesopotamia, the West Pampa, Patagonia, and Antarctica.

In Argentina there are four integrated regions formally established by the respective treaties interprovincial defined by having the appropriate size and scale to operate as a true operating unit in the international economy.

The province of Buenos Aires and Buenos Aires would form a fifth economic unit, although this was not yet formally agreed.
regions-de-Argentina
Pampeana region.
 
The Pampas is a great plain or plain relatively low altitude above sea level (the altitudes of this plain ranging from level 0 m sea-ocean to the east and up to about 500 m in its western areas becomes a peneplain) herbaceous temperate climate so it naturally abundant grasslands and prairie steppes gradually coming as it moves south and west, in the north-naturally change is a biome park contact the warmest and subtropical Chaco region. Historically it is the core of the country and remains as it has been mainly given Creole equestrian complex gauchos (approximately: from the mid-seventeenth century and late nineteenth century, although even livestock, mainly cattle brought from Europe and excellently maintained acclimated to pampeano biome relevance and therefore are valid gauchos).
 
Thus the Pampas region at present is the most important of Argentina, to the point of being called "The Core Zone" both economically, and politically and demographically. It represents approximately 75% of national activities. In the east bordering the rivers Parana, de la Plata and the Atlantic Ocean; in the North with the Chaco region, both the Pampas and the Chaco region share the same ancient large substrate geological however what the difference is the climate and for that reason between them noticeable to the naked eye, ecological and landscape differences, transitional or ecotone between the Pampas region or the Chaco region Pampasia and zone begins approximately the latitude of 31 ° S area where -of north- south were appearing increasingly thick groves of trees but typically chaqueños such groves have been cut almost entirely during the twentieth century, now visibly defined the boundary between northern and southern Pampas region of the Chaco area round the great salt lake called "laguna Mar Chiquita". In the West the llanísima itself Pampas region that borders the regions of the Precordillera and steppe (Pampa Seca); and in the South with the Pampa Seca and the Atlantic Ocean.

The Pampas region includes much of the Province of Buenos Aires (except for its southern end, between the Colorado and Black rivers), center and south of the province of Santa Fe, eastern Cordoba, Southeast Province San Luis and east of the province of La Pampa. A whole region since the late nineteenth century it has been categorized as one of the granaries of the world with its exports of cereals, legumes, meats, dairy and vegetables, provide food for much of the world's population. As a producer of food and population density the sector exceeds isohieta 500 mm / year and rich in humus called wet Pampa stands, the humid pampas largely usually nicknamed "the Pampa Gringa" because since the end nineteenth century much of its territory was intensively populated by chacareros from Europe, especially immigrants from Italy and Spain which so decisively influenced the Argentina gastronomy and other relevant cultural features typical Argentine (River Plate Spanish, tango, slang, different customs and traditions etc.).

Rainfall decreases from east to west by the lower influence of the sea and from north to south in the province of Buenos Aires. The wettest area is the northeast of the Province of Buenos Aires, usually with more than 1000 mm per year. In the West it drops to 200 mm annually. On the Atlantic coast, the climate is temperate coastal climate, low thermal amplitude. The phenomenon of La Niña whose core is far from Argentina since it occurs in inter-tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean, but such current appears certain years distant causes in much of the American territory drought worrying.
Región_pampeana
The Pampas region has four sub - regions: the rolling pampas, the depressed pampa, high pampas and the (very old) Precambrian serrano enclaves Systems Tandilia and Ventania. They were eroded by wind. The Ventania, further south, is higher. These saws have outcrops of limestone that prey on construction. Falls sheer into the sea, precisely in Mar del Plata, at Cape Corrientes.

The depressed area belongs to the basin of Salado river of Buenos Aires, in which many gaps stand in your way. For example, the lagoon of Chascomús and Lobos.

The most populated area is the city of Buenos Aires and its suburbs. The coast of Rio de la Plata is very sparsely populated southeast of the cities of La Plata and port in Ensenada, especially in the Bay of Samborombón such almost depopulated coastal strip is a pocket of limited resources because the land is not fertile because It consists of soft, sandy soil and numerous cangrejales. South of the aforementioned bay coasts and fully oceanic (Atlantic facade of the Southern Cone) are usually equipped, like the estuary of the River Plate, cliffs moderate altitude (no more than 10 meters above sea level ) popularly called ravines, such canyons from the mainland are followed by wide sandy beaches and naturally preceded by dunes called dunes, the Atlantic coasts of the Pampas region were almost uninhabited by humans until the late nineteenth century change from the twentieth century and currently hold lot of cities and towns that have thrived mainly by tourism. The origin of the "canyons" coastal largely because they were the erosional boundary of the ocean whose level was considerably higher tens of thousands of years ago.

The surface of all the Pampas region in Argentina is 535 000 km² (equivalent to 19% of the surface of American continental Argentina) and its population in 2001 was 22,040,628 (equivalent to 61% of the national total).

Pampeanas saws.
saws-pampeanas-3-728
This very ecotónica intemerdio region possessing a climate between temperate and continental climate pampeanas called high Sierras is located in the central-western sector Argentine
continental American country. Its interesting climatic characteristics and climate biomes derived from this uniqueness makes much of the Pampas Sierras present landscapes and other very similar to the Mediterranean climate ecosystem aspects although the reverse of the same major spring summer rainfall. Such a region is limited by -mediando ecotonos- Northwest regions, Chaqueña, Pampeana and Cuyana.

Structurally comprises the area of ​​the Pampeanas, although included in this region Famatina system. As sub-regions can be distinguished:

the saws
the plains
the oasis

Saws linked to the bulk of Brasilia, folded in the Paleozoic, were subjected to intense erosion that became penillanuras, then affected by the Andean orogeny that fractured in blocks, of which some were elevated (saws) and other sunken ( fields).
Read also: The Republic of Argentina has 23 provinces and an autonomous city.
The mountains are oriented north to south, presenting its western slope gentle slope ( "skirt"), while the eastern falls relatively quickly or abruptly ( "costs"); the ends sink into the surrounding plain constitute the tips and the contact line with level, this constrastado edge of the mountains to the plains called "the coast" but has nothing to do with current maritime areas.

The plains are interposed between the mountain ranges, the North are located at a higher altitude (2300 m) and in the form of circular or elongated pockets or valleys. On the surface of the plain contiguous sectors to pampeanas northern mountains are distinguished, in which sand and pebbles are deposited to these sectors plains are called fields. If it is a closed basin with flat bottom, a deposit of salt bed bordered by a swamp barreal or originates. The most important are located in the Santa Maria Valley, the field of Andalgalá of Bethlehem, the Talampaya and the pocket of Chilecito.

The Llanos region such as La Rioja is characterized by ease of communications with the Pampas and its low altitude. Depressions stay dilated salt as Pampa de las Salinas and Salinas Grandes. In the mountains of Cordoba dominated ancient mountain ranges and therefore relatively low (no more than 3000 m) and relatively rounded and between the mountains but ecologically valuable small plateaux called "pampas" (not to confuse with the huge plains of the Pampas region or Pampasia ), the best known of these highland plains are those of Achala, Pocho and the Olaen these high plains that lie between the peaks and where the granitic material, thanks to the condensation of moisture in them occurs throughout appears the year and the heavy winter snowfalls transform them into important natural reservoirs of pure fresh water to irrigate crops in the drier parts of the Pampas and provide drinking water to urban conglomerates (eg the large metropolitan area of ​​the city Cordoba Argentina, Cordoba conurbation is in full transition zone of penillanura and pedemonte which is part of the intersection of geosets of the Pampas Sierras with this properly Pampas.

The formation of the relief impacts on climatic conditions, and although the region is subjected to the humid summer winds from the Northeast, at the northern end of the Precordillera the highest mountain altitudes with elevations reaching over are located 5000 meters above sea level such as in the Sierra de Famatina or Aconquija, the distribution of precipitation differs markedly, with the system Aconquija the most favored area, with higher rainfall 1500 mm. Presents snowcapped all year (called snow). Numerous rivers come down from their hills that take their waters to the river Salí or Dulce.

To the South and West rainfall decreases to the fields present in desert conditions expressed in the salt and a drainage network landlocked (endorheic). Temperatures vary with altitude and orientation: on the plains and fields the summers are very warm, with large daily temperature ranges; in the high valleys variations are less sensitive and milder summers. The atmosphere is dry and clear and less rainfall than 300 mm / year, but these conditions disappear on the slopes of the Eastern Sierras.
The vegetation presents characters consistent with the rains: in the mountains of Tucumán the mountain forest (practically a southern sector of the yunga) develops, to the South in drier areas, skirts have arboreal mountains where the carob tree predominates while in often undermines the slopes vegetation. Coconut palms frequently calls (though not give coconuts) and cacti ( "thistles") dominate large areas, being pure formations cardones. In the inland valleys, man's existence depends on water, if it is abundant in surface and irrigable soil, crop oasis arise;otherwise, shepherds positions.
They can thus distinguish three zones: the western fringe of extreme dryness, in which agriculture is unimportant and dominated ranching and mining.

The central strip, favored by the rains, has many dams and dikes;abundant agricultural oasis of diverse dimensions among which are: Andalgalá, Catamarca, Chilecito and Arauco. Crops are high performance especially vegetables, fruit, olive and vine. The mount provides wood and firewood and non-arable areas ranching is practiced. It is also important mining, excelling districts of Famatina and Andalgalá.

The third strip is the most favored by rainfall so it has more rivers where larger dikes (San Roque, Cruz del Eje, Rio Tercero) are located. Piedesierra plains, which are confused with the high Pampa, have higher rainfall, but depend on the mountains that provide the water for their crops. For its mild climate the third strip that includes the Sierras de Cordoba and the most fertile area of ​​the Sierras de San Luis (eg the famous area of ​​excellent microclimate around Merlo) for their mesology this southern Precordillera area it has received a very important demographic and cultural influence from Europe.

In this contact zone the most important towns where intensive agriculture is practiced arose, livestock aided with artificial prairies, mining and has great industrial development and tourism.

Whose.
whose
Which limits the North with the Northwest region, east of the Pampas hills and the Pampas plains, the South with the Andean Patagonia and extrandina and the West with the Republic of Chile.

Three sub-regions can be distinguished:

1) The mountainous area, subdivided in Andes Mountains and foothills of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza
2) The oasis irrigation
3) the eastern plains.

The difference between the Andean Cordillera and Precordillera is fundamentally geological: the Andes geosinclinal are the most modern orogenic element, being an old marina, narrow and elongated basin, whose sediments were folded and raised to the greatest heights during the Cenozoic, with accompaniment of magmatic effusions.

Precordillera consists of Paleozoic sediments folded in that era and then raised by the Andean orogeny; Eastward it is separated from the Precordillera by a fracture line characterized by intense seismic activity.

Los Andes Aggregates or Central have two strands: the western, by which runs the Argentine-Chilean border, is almost continuous showing steps of high altitude, leads the watershed being born in glaciers in them located rivers that run through narrow valleys strewn with rubble. From the South of Mendoza and up to about 37 ° S, extends in the Andes of Transition have more snow (snow eternal) at summits and more vegetation by varying weather conditions.

The eastern cord, also called Cordillera Frontal and Precordillera, is presented as dashed by being cut by the transverse valleys of the rivers flowing from the west; in it are extremely high peaks (Aconcagua is the highest peak of the Earth outside the system of the Himalayas, Tupungato, etc). A series of narrow valleys locally called drawers, separating the two strands, characterized by high aridity although often covered with snow and mainly "eternal ice".

Among the Aconcagua and Tupungato the appearance of the ridge begins to change, vast glaciers and volcanoes appear south (Overo, Peteroa), accompanied by large expanses covered slag and lava fields.

To the east of the arid Andes a number of large longitudinal valleys (Rodeo, Church, Barreal and others) with predominantly coarse materials from the mechanical breakdown of the Cordilleran rocks are located, but have their very fine flat funds covered materials .

The Valley of Barreal is a basin without drain, the bottom of which is occupied by the barreal the Leoncito, while the Uspallata valley is crossed by the south by the river Mendoza. Here are a series of irrigation oasis, among which stand out Calingasta and Uspallata; They separate these valleys of the Andes foothills. whose summits lack of persistent snows.

A small number of rivers cross the Precordiliera by narrow valleys, at the end of which form extensive alluvial fans connected to the plains. This fine material has served as a seat to important crop oasis in the northern section highlights the Jáchal and the main southern area: San Juan and Mendoza, prolonged in Tunuyán. The rivers that run through these oases have been exploited for energy production and obtaining water for irrigation, highlighting the reservoir Ullum or Ullún.
In the middle of the desert and semi-desert areas of penillanuras calls cruises courses Southern freshwater from the melting of the Andean glaciers (eg the Diamante and Atuel rivers) have generated oasis irrigation have as prominent urban centers San Rafael and General Alvear. In the river Atuel, the topographical features (the existence of a deep canyon eroded by the river) allowed the construction of the reservoir Nihuil important energy production which justifies the establishment in the area of ​​heavy industries.

The surface of the oasis is intended to growing grapes, olives, fruit and vegetables (eg garlic). alfalfa is planted to feed the cattle, and some cereals but in small areas, in terms of viticulture heliofania and continental climate of this region with its consequent water stress combined with good alluvial soils and irrigation with excellent freshwaters thaw makes the Cuyo and its surroundings is one of the areas most renowned worldwide for its production of wines (wines were introduced by the Spanish in the seventeenth century and taken to a premium level with the great Italian immigration followed by the French and Spanish late nineteenth century and the first half of sl twentieth century, after they have already in the late twentieth century and early twenty multinational wine producing important century (mainly French type) made Argentine wines of Cuyo among the most renowned in the world . Although also here ranching is developed with certain forms of small-scale transhumance, leading to graze cattle in summer to the mountainous area.

Mining is also very important, especially highlighting oil Tupungato also exploited copper (El Pachon in San Juan), uranium, lead, zinc, limestone and marble.

To the east the plains of sandy clay, soil aridity and reduced slope great extend. The few torrential rains eroded deep trenches that prevent landslides caused by displacement even with horses, forming the so-called "Huayquerías" adjacent to crossings, such as the Tunuyán.

Argentine Northwest.
not
Although the Argentine Northwest or NOA is a great cultural unity since pre - Columbian times, has an enormous ecological variety, mainly due to the step - down of altitudes from west to east, with climates and very contrasting landscapes: for example, the actual Andes with lot of very high (over 6000 m) extinct volcanic cones like Llullaillaco, then altoandinos and the high Puna plateau deserts including the high plateau of the Puna de Atacama, then the high Sierras Subandinas stands and then a strip ecotónica valleys and gorges which includes streams of Humahuaca, del Toro, Valle de Lerma, the Calchaquíes valleys, the tucumano tempered Tafi Valley with its winter snows, and then to subtropical and tropical yungas with its dense nimbosilvas (the yungas are the most biodiverse ecoregions in Argentina) and then move to the piedmont "pampas" that anticipate the park of the Chaco region.

Chaco.
province-biogeographic-Chaquena
The Chaco region is part of the South American Gran Chaco region.Its boundaries are the Pilcomayo River to the north, the Paraguay and Parana rivers to the east; the Salado River region south and west of the Argentine Northwest.

From east to west (and this is from wetter to drier) can be divided into two sub-regions, the eastern Chaco and the western Chaco (containing the Impenetrable), noted that the ecoregion does not correspond exactly with the traditional geographic regions in which is subdivided to the great Chaco region from south to north is distinguished: Austral Chaco, Chaco and Central Chaco Boreal.
Naturally this region, until the twentieth century, covered with dense subtropical forests of hardwood trees quebrachos, carob, -or- guayacanes palosantos, chañares, or relatively soft woods like Yuchán was existing in its east important palm groves of different palm species: yatays, caranday (dawns Copernicias) and Pindos and other palms, quebrachales were decimated since the early twentieth century to produce tannin European tanneries and instead deforested areas not planted were planted cotton fields were invaded by tributed vinales and quimiles, but this scenario already catastrophic deepened from 1990 as much of the Chaco natural forest cover has been removed or "chaqueada" to cultivate non-native legume and transgenic soya (now called popularly "the weed" is say "almost weedy grass"), such massive planting is an industrial crop that is eliminating biodiversity.
Its surface in Argentina is 440 000 km² (16% of total US Argentina) and its population was 2,932,772 in 2001 (8% of the national total).
Mesopotamica.
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia Argentina is a relatively heterogeneous region as the missionary plateau crossed by low mountain ranges such as the Sierra de Misiones has more similarities with the Brazilian plateau, estuaries and lagoons of Ibera can be considered part of the Chaco and Entre Rios Province can be assimilated to the Pampas region or Uruguay.

In its entirety comprises the provinces of Misiones, Corrientes and Entre Rios.
Has four sub-regions: the missionary Plateau, the Esteros del Ibera and lakes, the entrerrianas Lomadas and Mercedina plateau and the Parana River Delta.

Until the twentieth century much of Argentina (or Megapotamia) Mesopotamia was covered by dense forests like Montiel in Entre Rios, of the Payubré in Corrientes and the already (despite its subtropical latitude) with tropical characteristics missionary jungle ( after the Gaza yungas, the missionary forest is the ecoregion most biodiverse highlighting the variety of plant species and native fauna, now such large forests are only some remnants to be cleared (as much of the Argentina forest natural surface) throughout the twentieth century and even more so far this century to give rise to industrial monocultures allochthonous such as GM soy. in Misiones Paranaense forest stands.
The surface of Mesopotamia is 196 000 km² (7.1% of the country) and its population in 2001 was 3,016,083 (equivalent to 8.3% of the national total).

West Pampa.
pampa-Western
It is an area west and south of the Pampas region, which is transitional to Patagonia. mostly it has a continental climate, ie with large seasonal temperature ranges and even day / night, with frequent cold winters with temperatures below 0 ° C, especially at night, but still snowfalls are not as common suggest that temperatures as cold winds pampero type are usually dry after unloading much of its moisture in the Patagonian Andes, however there are frequent frosts. The vegetation is quite similar to that of the cuyanas crossings and the steppes of the extraandina eastern Patagonia, ie predominantly hard pastures xerófilos often stunted, but throughout the West Pampa has or has had a major forestry diagonal called "caldenal" area very flat deck extensive parks and forests that extends parallel to the river system alóctono and now occasionally exorreico Desaguadero-Chadileo-Chadileuvú-Curacó river whose headwaters are in the (hills) snow-capped Andes del Cuyo distant and snowcapped Precordillera, on the banks of the waterways tend to thrive dense fachinales or even menucos guadales found.

The eastern part of the West Pampa (practically on the border with happiness itself Pampas region) has ancient pampeanos valleys that descend fan from west to east, these valleys are remains of paleocauces as today in what would be the trough of each run no shallow river (although under the same rounded valleys, underground, coursing much of the aquifer Puelche), further west of the valleys are extensive plains such as La Banderita and in such small plains isolated mountains very old crystalline rock called Archean saws such eminences and mahuidas, among the most renowned of such mahuidas is the small but ecologically important Lihue Calel saw as its low altitude atmospheric moisture condenses and forms a sort of oasis pluvionival.

Patagonia region and South Atlantic Islands.
patagonia-and-his-ecoregions-2-638
The Patagonian region comprises the part of the Patagonia Argentina and South Atlantic islands (such islands in dispute with the United Kingdom).
The vast Patagonia Argentina is subdivided according ecosystems and climates in an Andean Patagonia with perhumid climate due to heavy rainfall humid winds discharged onto the Patagonian Andes and to a lesser extent on the Chained saws and drumlins constituting the Patagónides, the east of the forest (plethoric coniferous tree species such as the giant pehuenes and lahuanes and fagáceas as lenga and Nire, to cite just some of the native tree species), Andean Patagonia is characterized by its "alpine" scenery with mountains always snowy, cold forests valdivienses and cold forests Magellanic (they are classified as "forests" because despite its appearance and its cold weather in certain areas, such as southern Tierra del Fuego abound several different tree species and understory), part of the Andean subregion Patagonian south of 45 ° S is covered by vast fields of perennial ice sheets and glaciers that now feed their waters into rivers almost all Patagonia during the Würm (makes ca only 30 to 11 thousand years) covered much of the Patagonia erosively carving glacial valleys and at the foot of these valleys basins that resulted after the end of the ice age, large glacial lakes characteristic of south-central Chile and Patagonia Argentina (Lacar Nahuel Huapi Lake Buenos Aires, Argentina Lake, Lake Fagnano etc.), east of the currently narrow wooded strip of Andean Patagonia (which was further narrowed the "clearing" of the twentieth century) the eastern Patagonia is located extraandina with climate very continental (even near the ocean) and therefore with little rainfall so in "modern" times its typical vegetations are xeric steppe and tussoks very suitable for the natural existence of guanacos but overgrazed with the massive inclusion of millions of sheep and goats, as overgrazing since the twentieth century it is causing desertification in Patagonia.

The southern tip of Patagonia extraandina (eg areas where fields Diana were located south of the Santa Cruz River), the Falkland Islands and the north of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego) are much more fertile areas because they have greater humidity why there are grasslands and tundra and peatland soils. Increased moisture in southern Patagonia extraandina favors the existence of large dam projects with hydroelectric aims on its major rivers, especially in the above Santa Cruz.
Moreover , the Argentina Patagonia is usually subdivide traditional and politically "North Patagonia" (the provinces of Neuquen and Rio Black) forming almost a geographical unit with Comahue covering southern Cuyo and the West Pampa, and the "South Patagonia "(provinces of Chubut, Santa Cruz and the American island of Tierra del Fuego and theFalkland islands, south of Tierra del Fuego is called Austrandia).

Northern Patagonia is characterized as" less windy "(owning less intense winds) and be at sea level much warmer than the "South Patagonia" example of this is quite warm resort of Las Grutas in full coasts of northern Patagonia, although in the northeast corner of the South Patagonia there are spas like Rada Tilly. to the southeast of the Falkland islands are the islands of subantarctic climate calls Antartillas, they possess a cold ocean climate given the triple influence of the current (very cold) oceanic Antarctica and the almost constant winds "howler" blowing with SO-NE direction from the South Pole and the influence of the Antarctic Convergence for many geographers is the limit of the Antarctic area; An example of this is the south of the islands San Pedro or South Georgia that often retain much of the floes and icebergs detached from the Antarctic ice shelf configured for that reason on the shores of these islands curious ocean microclimates with unique species of flora coast and fauna; for the same reasons many of the Antartillas, especially the subantarctic have a warm or cold climate and oceanic perhumid are covered with ice and tussoks areas and tundras. The costs of the Antartillas, Falklands and island states have been heavily carved by glaciers Würm so have abundant fjords and fringed estuaries of high cliffs (high cliffs or cliffs are also typical of almost all coasts Argentine Patagonia).

This refuge belongs to the Club Andino Piltriquitrón, was conducted in 1958, with wood that HACHO the surrounding forest. it should be noted that the original cottage was made entirely ax, roof shingles cypress. the height which is is 1300 meters above sea level , the limit of the high forest. From this point begins the stocky lenga and swivels. The first refugiero Ice Blue was Ramiro Uriarte, who was in charge of the care of the place for 11 years, from 1989 to 2000. During this period the original shelter was improved by refugiero, who installed a wood stove, made a mezzanine for people to sleep, did latrine and several parts to improve service. In 2000 changed the granting shelter those in charge are currently Lucas Angelino and Lucia Saquero . Since the beginning of the concession was significantly modified construction. Avalanches, landslides, etc ... naturally fallen trees were used, wind, to make wood for parts of the facility. Currently the shelter has running water, hot showers and baths from spring to late fall. During the winter amenities are restricted due to the harsh climate. it also has 12 -volt DC electricity which is generated by a hydraulic micro turbine and a photovoltaic solar panel nonpolluting, energy installed by the current refugieros. This energy is used to power a VHF system, some lighting and background music communications. The waste generated by the shelter are recycled, composted organic matter, separating cans, glass, plastic, for subsequent transfer to people or incineration at place. the service includes overnight use of the kitchen, which is fully equipped with dishes, hot shower and the bedroom features mattresses, but it is always essential to wear insulation for any eventuality.
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Immigrant heritage in the German villages, memories of the railway and a walk Strobel Diamante, door to the National Park preserving ecosystems levee, the lake and bathed landscapes that characterize this stretch of coastline. Ideal for the purposes of entrerrianos week matte and nature walk.

Between Paraná and Victoria, the RP 11 is the thread that links the German villages in the province of Entre Rios. They are the people who founded the mid-nineteenth century communities "Volga Germans" in the new country that opened them the doors after being forced from Czarist Russia.

The first five were founded in 1878; Valle were Marienthal or Mary; Protestant; Marienfeld or Spatzenkutter; San Francisco; Santa Cruz. Later it would be the turn of Brazilian village where settlers who had initially been settled in Brazil.
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The German villages are now a circuit itself, which travels to meet a string of villages where architectural remains of those people are and, above all, a strong gastronomic seal. As in Corner Munich, a classic Brazilian village, where you have the "restaurant version" of the dishes that many families still eat home indoors with stews and Central Filsen to the head.

Every year on December 8 December, delegations leaving Brazilian village, Valle Maria and Spatzenkutter leave in procession by the Place de la Virgen, on the banks of the Parana, to a cave near the canyon. On the way there are several hostels where you can take a break, or even navigate part of the way. For closer or farther away from the coast, the river is the presence that always unites the most diverse corners of the province.
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STROBEL RIDE.
Less than ten kilometers of Aldea Protestant, Strobel is the last stop before Diamante, which in turn is the gateway to Predelta National Park. They can be explored on foot, along a path that runs parallel aa railway line, between silos and trees that lead to a little park railway consists of a locomotive and some wagons.

Walking the Paseo de la Ribera Diamond, near which the creation of a Ramsar international convention -the protects wetlands-can also join the trek of the islands that allow, when in season, watch the flowers is projected site I irupé identifying the National Park.
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The walk Diamante also worth spending some time at the Museum of Dr. Liotta, born in the city and known for creating the artificial heart. In the halls you can see from their creations in the field of medicine to the prizes and gifts he received during his career: the most outstanding milestone was the first use of a total artificial heart during a heart transplant in April 1969 the Texas Heart Institute in Houston.

Leaving behind Diamond to continue the coastal walk, the neighborhood of fishermen is distinctive for its statue of Christ Pescador, striking 12 meters high and 14 tons. It was installed at the initiative of a sister of the Servants of the Holy Spirit, closely linked with the Volga Germans here. Those who have seen the Malvinas Monument in Quequén, or the Monument to the Sower in Villa Elisa, as well as Bicentennial Monument in Neuquen, probably recognize the hand of the sculptor Andrés Mirwald in the course of the work. Here and there, still they appear Palanqueros fishermen with their fishing cargo in tow, as traditionally as ever.

Typical hummocks formed by building up vegetation on the trees.

PUNTA GORDA AND ROOF.
The trip continues in Punta Gorda, the place where Urquiza crossed the Parana which in this sector is more angosto- to go towards the battle of Caseros. With crossed cannons and thousands of soldiers, at the beginning of a journey that would take one month to the province of Buenos Aires. It was carried horses as "scourge", a form that allowed them arrear many animals at once, with a gaucho that egged and another that ran from inside the pack. So today the place is known as the roof. Here are also old vessels, such as ships used cages used to transport animals, and old fishing boats anchored in the past.

go a coastline rich in vines and trees like timbó and dragon's blood, two species very characteristic of the place. It is a world of pure nature, where traces of capybaras, birdsong and flavors that speak of herbs and pure vegetation where they mix from ombúes carnations air to guess. You can walk along a path that passes from the levee to the woods and then towards the end canyon.

You get -now herself at the end and main point of the trip: the Predelta National Park, symbolized by a kingfisher, a bird long beak that is usually seen frequently waiting patiently for their prey on the branches near the shore.
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The park has a clear goal: the preservation of the ecosystem of the levee (ie the highest point) of the lagoon, and bathed (the lower and more flood-prone area of ​​the set). It is the habitat of water cockerels, cuervillos, otters, nutria and many birds that attract photographers and birdwatchers. The road -cuentan rangers guarding these litoraleños- everyday landscapes slowly into streams and brooks, which are like the streets of Delta opens. Streets where it is easier to navigate than walking, and that still remain traditional lifestyles well inside. It is indeed the only place left to know the true Delta as it was, and further south the environment is greatly modified by human intervention and agriculture.

National Park, which covers part of the Parana river and islands Del Ceibo, sleeves and Del Barro, is also revealing of the times: with increasing frequency appear like the Pope-maned species that are very forested, more north, but using the river as a corridor: and also pushed by the notorious climate change were down and today the sights in the province of Entre Rios.

The protected area is also home to the Carau, the only American crane, and armadillos, cardenillas, thrushes and woodpeckers Chaco, among other species. With watchful eyes will not soon discover traces of the passage of several animals more: a flattened pajonal simple can be a symbol of a nearby capybara that was lying around here, watching the embalsados ​​of camalotes run slowly through the water. There are also otters, otters, alligators, speckled lizards, turtles, ducks, screamers ... it is a whole world that lives mostly half-hidden among the tall grass, but less attentive to the passage of a strange visitor.

Somehow it is a mutual exercise, which threatens wildlife spy to take care of the newcomer, and the curious humans of this world quite rightly flees them. But the Predelta National Park is just ideal for a meeting point between the two place.

The access road to Predelta National Park.
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According to the stories told by descendants of "natural land" and to this day, the Piltriquitron, is considered a "reservoir of positive energy , " curator.  Generally, their modern visitors report that, after a walk down its slopes, and even more if they reach the summit, experience a "renovator desire to live" and feel they have "rested the spirit".

The Piltriquitron, in native tongue: "Hung clouds".

The scenery is bush in every corner, on the surrounding slopes there are forests of cypress and cohiues with black thorns forming a thick mass of trees tinged with different shades of green that in autumn turn into a wide range of ochres and oranges.
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The Cerro has an exceptional panoramic point over 1200 meters. From here you can perfectly see the valley of El Bolson and the Cordillera (where you can see the Andes with its most important peaks such as Mount Tronador, the three Peaks, and the beautiful valley of the Rio Azul, and the degree of visibility that allows the atmosphere, the Osorno volcano in Chilean territory). You can travel by car along a road that is winding the side of this imposing and mysterious mass of rock.

To get here, you take the RN 258 south and then rises through a narrow mountain road; Street continues to find the platform Piltriquitrón, once there, walking through a natural forest.

Along the way are the main complex of cottages, craft workshops, nurseries, teahouses and who organize a parade. At 1,200 meters. this platform start paragliding. At the end of the walk you reach the refuge of the Andean Club Piltriquitrón.
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Located in the southwestern corner of the province of Rio Black, it integrates with the northwest of the province of Chubut called "Andean Region of Parallel 42".
 

Declared ecological municipality and non - nuclear area, its special microclimate is suitable for cultivation of fine fruits (strawberries, raspberries, cherries and cherries among others) and hops lends its name to the National Party that takes place in the month of February.


El Bolson is immersed in a landscape of forests, valleys, hills and unique beauty.

A place of peace, in which his His spring is warm summer floral and invites the practice of adventure tourism activities such as horseback riding, trekking, rafting, canoeing, mountain biking, climbing, and walks through its typical pastoral farms. Autumn is a wonderful polychrome ochres, reds and yellows.

Tourist all year, in winter the snowy landscape is complemented by skiing at Cerro Perito Moreno. Every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday runs the Regional Fair artisans and producers, one of the most important in South America. There are crafts in wood, clay, metals, stones and flowers carved by artisans cordilleranos, breweries, musicians and other producers of international recognition.

The economic profile of El Bolson and its area of influence has two distinct areas:
One agroforestry, mainly the production of hops (about 200,000 kilos per year) and fruits tubs and farm and garden products and timber use of forests, both native and implanted.

Another resource of El Bolson is the service sector, which include tourism, rapidly expanding. In El Bolson, a variety of other activities influencing economic support, such as making selective food products (fine fruits, candies, smoked meats, cheeses, liqueurs, ice cream beers and others, all of excellent quality. We must also counting the numerous artisans, mostly grouped in the Regional Fair as well as mushroom pickers, musk, ferns, etc. mainly add resources to the most vulnerable sectors of society in El Bolson.

Last but not least, the construction sector is marking a favorable economic growth in El Bolson, since a high demand for new housing is recorded. As an example suffices to note that at certain times, it is very difficult to get houses for rent.
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Review refuge located in one of the most beautiful spots in the region: how to access, for rides from the shelter, recommendations.

SHELTER ICE BLUE.
 
This refuge belongs to the Club Andino Piltriquitrón, was conducted in 1958, with wood that HACHO the surrounding forest. It should be noted that the original cottage was made entirely ax, roof shingles cypress.

The height at which it is located is 1300 meters above sea level, the limit of the high forest. From that point they begin the squat Lengas and stonemasons.


The first refugiero Ice Blue was Ramiro Uriarte, who was in charge of the care of the place for 11 years, from 1989 to 2000. During this period the original shelter was improved by the refugiero, who installed a wood stove, made ​​a mezzanine for people to sleep, did latrine and several parts to improve service.

In 2000 he changed the granting of refuge who are in charge now are Lucas and Lucia Angelino Saquero. Since the beginning of the concession was significantly modified construction. avalanches, landslides, etc ... used naturally fallen trees, wind, wood to make the parts of the facility.

Currently the shelter has running water, hot showers and baths from spring to late fall. During the winter the amenities are restricted due to the harsh climate.

It also has 12 volt DC electricity which is generated by a hydraulic turbine and a micro photovoltaic solar panel clean, energy refugieros installed by current. This energy is used to power a VHF communications system, some lighting and background music.

The waste generated by the shelter are recycled, composted organic matter, separating cans, glass, plastic, for subsequent transfer to people or incineration in place.

Overnight service includes use of the kitchen, which is fully equipped with dishes, hot shower and the bedroom features mattresses, but it is always essential to wear insulation for any eventuality.
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The bedroom is a common area for all visitors, there are about thirty mattresses, but as this is a mountain hut and no one is left out sometimes when busy in summer, during January generally, mattresses are shared and the ground floor is enabled with insulated so no one has to sleep under the uncertain ceiling of stars.

Hot meals are served homemade bread and homemade beer there, all this is done at the shelter. It has not proveeduría due to the difficulty to transport load.

Things to pack up and riding.
It is also possible to camp in the area surrounding the shelter, camping is payment, and has a barbecue area for communal use where you can use the stove, table and protected from the rain.

On the grounds of the campsite there is a stove, firewood should join the campers and camping does not include hot shower, but bathrooms are the same for refugees and campers.

To help preserve this area, both refugees and campers should lower the inorganic waste (plastics, cans, glass, etc ...) that produce during your stay.

The shelter is staffed by refugieros from spring to late fall, outside this period, inquire at the office of the Andean Club Piltriquitrón and / or municipal tourist office.
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WALKS AND CIRCUITS THAT CAN BE MADE FROM THE SHELTER.

ROAD TO THE GLACIER.

This walk takes about three to four hours round trip, no need to carry the backpack because it leaves the shelter and goes and returns along the same path.

The glacier is not seen from the shelter, it is to the west, and can clearly see the step that must be traversed to reach the lagoon surrounding it.

The base of Ice Blue, as it is called the glacier is 1700 meters above sea level.

The road is very different than the one used to climb to the refuge, shelter from the high forest is completed and passes on swivels, making the most difficult hike. The whole journey is very marked with red and yellow paint on stones and orange and yellow pennants in the last 500 meters.

The level of this hike is difficult to very difficult, depending on the experience of the traveler.

Before performing this ascent is recommended to go through the shelter and ask for information to refugieros.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
• Do not approach the front walls of the glacier.
• Do not walk on the glacier without ice equipment.
• In early summer the lake is often covered with snow and ice, not climb up it, because its resistance decreases each day.
• Up and down the marked path.
• Do not climb on the walls, if this climb is that the path is wrong, return to the paint mark closer and get back on track.
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CIRCUIT TO BLUE DRAWER.
This circuit allows to join shelters Ice Blue, Lake Swimming, Cajon del Azul, and other more distant without returning to the town of El Bolson.

The trail is marked in the same way as that used to reach the refuge Ice Blue. With red and yellow badges and red marks painted on trees.

To start the circuit must go back ten minutes down the road we arrived at the shelter until a sign that says "Swimming Lake" and an arrow pointing to the left. Once you reach the Teno river and crosses it by a fallen tree that serves as the bridge. This has a red rope railing.

Then begins a steep climb that takes about 45 minutes. At the top of the hill is a lagoon that borders on the left and then the trail bends to the west (left). At 5 minutes you reach the turnoff where you get two new trails, the right arrow indicating Wharton Wharton down to the farm, to return to the people directly, and left the other path is the continuation of that you. travels, goes to the refuge Lake Swimming.

Within 10 minutes you reach the shelter of swimming.

To continue to Refugio del Cajon del Azul should skirting Lake Swimming by his right, always following the red and yellow markings. a series of forest surrounded by intersect Pampitas and begins the steep descent through the forest of Lengas.
In about 20 minutes a stream coming from Lake Swimming crosses and 20 minutes longer reach a viewpoint from which you can see the blue river valley.

From there the descent is significantly more pronounced and walk through different types of forest, in about 45 minutes more, at the end of the steep descent reach a wide road which is the normal access to Refugio del Cajon del Azul, there is you must turn left. After 15 minutes the road meets the blue river and left turns into a narrow path, there is a sustained rise of 20 minutes, the river is crossed by a wooden bridge on the drawer and ten minutes after crossing a little pampas and some orchards, we reach the refuge.

Elevation gain: 1400 meters
Degree of difficulty: Difficult
Before performing this circuit is recommended to register and learn at the shelter.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

• In summer, leaving from the Blue Ice before 14 hours to reach him light to complete the journey without difficulty.
• Carry water from the main streams, Teno and Drainage Lake Swimming.
• always walk on the marked with red and yellow markings trails.
• If losing marks, return to the last mark to remember and look for signs on trees to continue in the right direction.
• Do not light fires or camp outside the places authorized for this purpose.
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ACCESS TO THE SUMMITS OF ICE BLUE AND BLACK BARDA.


ICE BLUE.
This summit is 2250 meters above sea level.

From the summit of Blue Ice can see the Chilean volcanoes Osorno and Pointed, the Tronador and many other mountains of the mountain range and the valley of El Bolson.

It has two busiest accesses, the shortest is going on the glacier, this option being a technical tour because you have to be equipped to travel on the glacier, and have knowledge of mountain climbing.

And normal is a long walk without technical rather than good sense of direction difficulties and some experience in mountain hikes, the first part of the tour is done by going to the refuge of Lake Swimming, and from there the forest is left westbound climbing on an edge that we must follow to reach the summit. This access is not signposted, so it is recommended to do it having some mountain experience.

BLACK BARDA.
This summit is 2150 meters above sea level, is part of the Blue Ice massif and is located south of the glacier.
The normal way and requires no technical equipment passages. It is a walk that is not marked, but with good judgment and common sense, you can access a beautiful hilltop with breathtaking views of the river valley Raquel, Glacier, Chilean volcanoes and many other Andean peaks.

If you believe your ability allows you to access, inquire at the shelter.
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PATH OF ACCESS TO SHELTER "ICE BLUE"

The historic public access to the mountain refuge begins at the Blue Ice camping Hue Nain, located on the east bank of the Blue River, which is accessed by the coastal road of the Blue River. This access used until the end of February 2006 was arbitrarily closed to the public by the settler Criado.

In this situation the municipal secretary of tourism enabled a new access that adds a walking time to reach the suspension bridge which crossed the Blue River, where the bite of access to shelter starts.

The new temporary access begins in a neighborhood alley, located on the coastal road of the Blue River, Blue River past the candy store, on the left. Admission is signaled by a municipal sign that says access Refugio Hielo Azul.

At 5 minutes to walk the path, the Azul river currency and two runways, one of cement and a more precarious by his side not to cross appear, continue along the river upstream for about 45 minutes following the marks red and yellow are painted in round badges.

Upon reaching the gateway, this is easily recognizable because it is the only one in the place, besides having a poster with recommendations for hikers climbing the Ice Blue.

Once the bridge (suspension bridge) crosses the path goes to the left and then upwards, is well signposted so you should find .The yellow and red markings and red and white cows make side trails throughout the forest , so you must walk attentive to the marks on the trees.

The first steep climb lasts about 15 to 20 minutes until you reach a green pampa, without many trees where you have to open a wooden gate and you will see on your left a round pen for keeping livestock. It is asked to leave the gates closed because they serve containment for livestock. Markings on the pampita are at stakes that are nailed on the grass. The trail will take slightly to the right, crossing a stream and enter back into the forest.

The climb is steep at 1.30 pm., Through different types of forest and crossing only one arroyito more. At the height of the "Mirador del Mallin Ahogado"

The climb becomes gentler for 30 minutes to reach the "Mallin de los Palos" a swamp that must be crossed walking on a number of sticks that were placed for this purpose.

Once crossed the mallín the climb is steep and goes to the right, in about 35 minutes you reach the "Mirador Raquel River Valley" from that point the forest will only Lenga (Nothofagus Pumillio).

After viewpoint there are two steep but short climbs and the rest of the way will be noticeably more pleasant for walkers. At 40 minutes from the Mirador del Raquel, you reach the edge of the stream "Teno" born of melting glacier "Ice Blue", whose southern shore is the refuge.

At that point you are approximately three kilometers refuge, about 45 minutes. The road has no major climbs, is mostly flat, and ten minutes before reaching the refuge the turnoff to Lake Swimming, to the right, marked by a signpost is.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

• Up early.
• Carry water from the Azul river.
• Follow the red and yellow marks.
• Do not make fire or camp along the way.
• Do not throw paper or waste.
• Wear insulating and sleeping bag, camping both to spend the night in the shelter.
• Respect departure times.
• If it is your first experience on the mountain, not climb alone.
bolson-Refugio Hielo Azul
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